Animal Welfare in the Beef Industry
Domestication of animals began more than 12,000 years ago. Archaeological, anthropological and various other forms of evidence have helped show that domestication was a plausible and rational successor to an earlier period of hunting and gathering. Hunting and gathering was inherently unpredictable, dependent on the vagaries of weather, animal reproductive success, forage. This in turn created instability in communities, given the need for constantly following the food supply.