Application of growth technologies in enhancing food security and sustainability
B. J. Johnson, F. R. B. Ribeiro, and J. L. BeckettAnimal Frontiers
Anabolic steroids have been widely used in the beef cattle industry for over 50 years as safe and effective growth-promoting agents, and today, more than 90% of all feedlot cattle in the US receive some type of steroidal implant during their lifetime (NAHMS, USDA 2000). A list of approval of growth promotants by the FDA is shown in Table 1. Generally, implants have been shown to increase growth rate 8 to 28%, improve feed efficiency 5 to 20%, and enhance lean tissue mass of the carcass 3 to 10% (Duckett and Owens, 1997).