Feeding Cows to Prevent Scours in Calves
University of California-Davis
Some of you may look at the title and wonder what the connection between feeding cows and preventing calf scours might be. In this month’s column we will explore the connections and try to provide some practical advice for the prevention of calf scours in general. However, it is important to know that the prevention of calf scours begins with the way the cows are fed and managed before they calve.
What causes calf scours?
This is an important question and one that should be addressed early on. The potential causes of calf scours are a fairly long list of viruses, bacteria, and protozoal agents. However, in most cases there are only four “bugs” that cause the vast majority of our scours problems in beef calves. These common agents are E. coli, Rota virus, Corona virus, and Cryptosporidium. The first organism, E. coli, is a bacterial agent that usually causes illness within the first few days of life—typically before 5 days of age. Rota virus and Corona virus are obviously viral agents and they cause disease at 10 days to 21 days of life.
Foot Rot in Cattle
M.B. Irsik, DVM, MAB and J.K. Shearer, DVM, MS2
University of Florida
Foot rot is a term loosely used to describe lameness associated with the bovine foot. However, true foot rot is characterized by acute inflammation of the skin and adjacent soft tissues of the interdigital cleft or space. It is accompanied by diffuse swelling, varying degrees of lameness and in most cases, by a foul-smelling necrotic lesion of the interdigital skin. Foot rot is the term commonly used in the United States for this lameness disorder, but internationally the disease is better known as foul, foul-in-the-foot, interdigital phlegmon, interdigital necrobacillosis, or infectious pododermatitis. It is a frequent problem of beef and dairy cattle, especially in poorly drained, muddy pens or lots and pastures. Normally, occurrence is sporadic, affecting only 1 or 2 animals at a time, but it may affect larger numbers of cattle in outbreak situations or problem herds.
Dale Blasi – Food Companies, Beef Recalls, E.Coli, Organic
What is the deal with all these food companies and these recalls? Do I need to worry more now about E. coli then before? How do you get bad pot pies? Is this going to become an epidemic? Are the Chinese involved? Would it be better if I switched to eating everything organic?
Question from Tom Katsenes, Phoenix, Arizona
First, I will qualify my answer by making it very clear that I am not an expert in the areas of food safety and industrial scale post-harvest processes. With that said I can’t dissect the exact reasons for the breakdown of each specific case but all companies involved in ground beef production must follow USDA FSIS guidelines and directives for HACCP plans, SSOP’s and other prerequisite programs. However, it was brought to my attention by one of my KSU Food Safety colleagues that there have been discussions regarding the emergence over the past five years of non-0157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) who may play a significant role in human health. Apparently, there was a multi-agency (FSIS, US Dept. of Health and Human Services, FDA, CDC to name a few) – sponsored meeting this past week in Arlington, VA to discuss the health significance of these aforementioned STEC strains and whether or not they should also be considered as adulterants. I do not know the outcome of this meeting’s discussions
Impacts of Crossbreeding on Profitability in Vertically Coordinated Beef Industry Marketing Systems
Vertically coordinated beef marketing systems (alliances and partnerships) have become breed specific, generally Angus, in an effort to improve quality grade and tenderness and to focus on the consumer. However, by so doing, the value of crossbreeding (heterosis) has been diminished, particularly at the cow-calf level. The primary objective of this project is to measure the effect of controlled crossbreeding in range environments on predominantly Angus-based females. By determining the value of heterosis to beef cattle alliances, cattle breeding systems in the U.S. have the potential to be significantly modified to utilize systematic, controlled crossbreeding programs.
FULL STORY PDF
Dealing with Adverse Drug Reactions
by Bob Larson, professor of production medicine, Kansas State University
Although most of the time when we administer a treatment, vaccine or other product to cattle we expect a positive outcome, occasionally cattle will have an adverse drug reaction. Adverse reactions can occur following the use of injectable antibiotics, dewormers, vaccines, insecticides, vitamin preparations and anti-inflammatory preparations, as well as skin ointments and other classes of drugs. …
FULL STORY PDF
Protein & Energy Supplementation Of Crop Residues For Breeding Cattle
This summer’s drought conditions in much of Ohio, West Virginia, and Kentucky continue to be cause for concern as many people are already feeding this winter’s hay supply. In response, The Ohio State University Extension Beef Team has posted several excellent articles to our web page (http://beef.osu.edu) over the recent months which deal with various aspects of nutrition and beef cattle management.
Regardless, over the past three weeks, two of the most common questions I’ve heard are ‘what can I feed’ and ‘what’s the value of corn stover’? Here are a few thoughts to consider.
Learning More About Rumen Bugs: Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Rumen Bugs
Ropin’ the Web
Ruminants are one of the most widely distributed group of mammals on earth, having adapted to arctic, temperate and tropical environments. This global distribution is possible because of the unique ability of ruminants to digest a wide variety of temperate and tropical vegetation. It is the portion of the digestive tract known as the rumen, and its distinctive population of microorganisms that provides ruminants with the genetic potential to derive energy from widely varying fibrous feeds.